Research on the interplay of cooperation and competition has evolved in separate yet related streams of research on alliances, networks, and ecosystems. Despite increasing scholarly interest in ecosystems, there is still confusion and skepticism concerning the unique nature of collaborative and competitive dynamics in ecosystems as opposed to alliances and networks. Do we really need new theoretical frameworks to explain these dynamics or rather established frameworks can be adapted to offer valid interpretative lens for the ecosystem context? How do these dynamics differ in dyadic alliances and networks? The purpose of this panel is to gain a more profound understanding of the similarities and differences in the logic and assumptions underlying these three distinct streams of research, and to identify promising directions for future research.